Petroleum Geology

Phases of oil:
1 – stage configuration: It is the first phase of the presence of oil where oil composition of material in the presence of three elements required availability, namely:
A – high concentrations of organic matter in a layer of rocks and these rocks are called “rocks
Source ”
B – heat.
C – pressure.
Where has all of the appropriate temperature and pressure at great depths.
2 – Immigration stage: At this stage, the oil migrates from its formation regions (source rocks) where high pressures heading to other areas where the pressure at least this phase requires the availability of essential elements
They are:
A – the difference in pressure: the force responsible for the movement of these fluids.
– Cable connected Aedha other represent the pores and ports, in addition to fractures and cracks in the rocks, all of which represent a rocky corridors allowing oil to pass through in the direction of horizontal or vertical, (immigration horizontal, vertical migration).
3 – phase of assembly: It is the final stage and is responsible for gathering large amounts of oil are often
Economic, and combine the oil has to be a rocky system works to prevent the continued migration of oil and collected
In the scope of this system, and this system is called trap oil.
• oil trap elements:
1 – reservoir rocks: It is a layer of rock with high porosity and permeability, allowing the rock
To contain the oil inside, where porosity is the overall size of the spaces for the size of the rock, while
Permeability is the ability of the rock to the fluid pass through it, as it is in sandstone.
2 – rock cover: It is a rocky impermeable layer above the reservoir rock to prevent vertical migration
Like baby oil, anhydrous gypsum rocks.
3 – Installation of a rocky: It is a fitting includes geological reservoir rock and rock cover in an appropriate manner to prevent the continued migration of oil, whether vertical or horizontal, such as trap Alqboih (combination) or incompatibility trap (stratified).
4 – Oil: to combine economic amounts of oil in the reservoir layer after the oil trap configuration, giving it a recipe oil trap.
• types of oil traps:
1 – trap Alqboih of: It is a closed convex fold of the four directions, where oil accumulates in
This summit fold because it represents the lowest value of the pressure in this installation. See the following figure:

2 – trap Alsdeih: It is a trap because of a crack formed oil with sufficient because the put-pointer
Impermeable rocks on one side of the rift interview reservoir rocks on the other side of the rift,
Which leads to prevent the continued migration of oil. See the following figure:

3 – Trap incompatibility: the surfaces resulting from the interruption of sedimentation and located between the rock layers
Called incompatibility surfaces, these surfaces may contribute in the trap where oil put rocks
A tank for a particular geological era interview impermeable rocks and belonging to the most recent geological eras.
4 – Trap stratified (Sahnah): In this type of traps we find that the layer reservoir facies change horizontally
Gradually, from porous rocks access to zero-permeability rocks leading to be Sahna barrier prevents
The continued migration of oil. See the following figure:

• drilling and extraction of oil:
The drilling process is one of the most important and most dangerous and most costly operations, which is the only technique of oil extracted from the ground, and is the process of extracting oil through the four basic stages are:
1 – oil drilling Oil Well Drilling
Wells are drilled oil by drilling Raho the (Rotary Drilling) using a drilling platform that
Can be described briefly as follows:

Rig Raho the
Drilling platform:
Drilling platform used in rotary drilling process which consists of basic parts help in the process
Drilling:
A – drilling Tower:
It is a metal erect tower over a broad horizontal platform and the tower is used in
Installation process columns drilling vertically and connected together, and then push it to the bottom of a spiral manner
B – Drilling columns:
It is a very solid metal poles ending edges compasses to be connected together to form a longer column, columns drilling characterized as hollow to allow the passage of drilling mud inside.
C – drill head (Drill):
It is a metal block manufactured in different geometric forms, with sharp edges may be
In the form of gears working to break up the rock which is hollow and contains slots in
Down impulsively allow drilling mud through it to the pit cavity.

Dr. – Tine drilling.
It is a ground chemicals mix with water to be a boor means. During the drilling process
This fluid is pumped by pumps through a huge cavity inside the drill pipe
Up to the drill head, and out through the slots in the bottom of the well rushes up into even higher
Up to the surface, carrying with him the rock fragments resulting from the drilling process, the surface passes
Mud on the filter separating the rock cuttings from the mud. And then paid back to the mud
Drill pipe cavity to come back the ball and be what is known as the drilling mud cycle.
Benefits can be summarized as the use of drilling mud are as follows:
cool drilling equipment with high temperature because of friction with rocks during drilling.
Directed by rock fragments resulting from the drilling operation during the rush of mud from the bottom of the well to the surface.
increases the cohesion of the wall of drilling to prevent the collapse of the walls of the hole during drilling.
avoid the exit gases or liquids that are under high pressure into the ground, which may lead to an explosion in the state as well by balancing the weight of the mud column in the pits for gas and liquid pressure in the rock layers.

2 – Lining Well Well Casing
Upon the arrival of drilling to depths of certain steel pipe lining the well called lining tube (Casing) this tube is lowered from the top of the well to the hall and prove to inject special quality of cement between the well wall and lining tube works to install the pipe in the wall. This prevents the tube from the collapse of the well, and also prevents the loss of mud during the height of the earth’s surface and that Btakllah through the walls of the well (especially if the porous permeable rock) or through the cave cavities may be present in some areas of drilling. Also, this tube prevents leakage of groundwater-bearing layers of the earth to the well. And the diameter of the tube Folding great at the top and gradually getting smaller to greater depths. Before you start digging a new phase of the well conducted tube lining after it is installed in concrete, with a well under the platform tower drilling, comprising the well head of a group of ceiling (Flanges), fittings and valves arrive Boallagha a mind blast (Blow out Preventer, Bop) which whereby prevent out of gas or oil or water during drilling until the drilling operations, delamination and other safe.

3 – punching drill pipe:
At the end of drilling and ensure access to aquifers oil is lowered shipment of explosives certain talked explosion limited allows Pttguib drill pipe and the widening cracks in the reservoir rock, has made the process of punching in Depth  different in the well itself, and thus become the well double production as in shape and if you do not the flow of oil it is lowered to fit the amount of hydrochloric acid, especially in calcareous layers to increase the permeability of the rocks, may be split the rock layer using high pressure to allow the entry into force of the oil to the bottom of the drill pipe.
After perforating the well pipe is lowered approximately three inches in diameter inside the well, if the well is double production, padding is inserted between the tube and tube production Folding over the area of ​​production lower oil Vidfq of this class through this tube. The production area top Vidfq from the space between the pipe and tube production Folding as seen in Fig.

4 – Christmas tree Christmas s Tree
During drilling operations is well full of heavy drilling mud to overcome the pressure possible. This allows at the end of drilling operations and requirements to lift explosion blocker (BOP) without gravity. Then install the wellhead and connects pipe and tube production Folding at the top of the tower.
See Fig. And displaced mud then folding of the tube to pump water until the water becomes less than the pressure in the class producing oil and when it pays a mixture of oil and gas in front of the water and start well in production.

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What is the Energy and sources of it

Energy that provides us with light and Tattiynha tambourine and

take us from one place to another, where it allows extraction of our

food from the land and prepare it who put the money in our hands

and runs Bmntaul wheel machines that we use to serve.

It is the ability of art to give the forces able to accomplish a particular job, it is also estimated that the production efficiency or

external system activity, which is an abstract entity that does not

know except through transformations, as it is a physical amount in

the form of heat or a mechanical movement

energy

Definition of energy known in physics as the ability to work and end

the mission and filling. For example, increasing the vehicle speed or

load requires a rock occupied the post.

The calculated energy and workpiece measurement unit itself.

And it collects and lost individuals to distinguish between energy

and the ability and strength. Average capacity is the job done.

Power is the payment or attractions being done by the human body.

The size of the labor force strongly linked to the way in length which Athrkha body.

Energy associated with moving-called mechanical energy.

 

Hence , I will enumerate the types of energy inventory and not the explanation: the types of energy

: chemical energy

mechanical energy

solar thermal energy

and nuclear energy

photovoltaic energy

Energy sources desire to human energy saving, the scientists

searched for a number of other energy sources, and these sources:

 

1) solar energy: utilized through direct heating in water heating,

heating and cooking operations, and can be converted directly to

(Taqhkahrbaiah) mediated by solar cells

2) fossil fuel: is the coal, oil and natural gas, and stores this fuel

(chemical energy) can take advantage of them when burned, and

fossil fuels is the energy source of the president where constitutes

more than 90% of the energy used today, but it is a depletable

source, due to problems environmental pollution, the search

actively for the provision and development of other energy sources

 

3) mechanical sources: They are waterfalls, dams and movement

(tidal) and wind energy, and therefore held plants (electricity

generation) when dams and waterfalls and areas of high tide and

throughout the strong wind to harness the power of the mechanical

payment run turbine

4) renewable or clean or alternative energy: includes wind power

and wind and solar energy, water or waves and energy underground

in the ground and biomass energy, which is inexhaustible energies

 

5) geothermal energy as utilized high temperature in the

underground, and in some these are areas (groundwater energy)

close to the surface of the earth thus it is found hot springs.

in Iceland, for example – are spread springs, and utilized for the purposes of heating and

6) chemical energy: the batteries exploit the chemical energy in

generating electricity. In accumulators used in mobile phone which

produces electricity from a chemical reaction. Also in the energy

that exploit hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity through

a chemical reaction electric cells.

 

7) Nuclear energy: produce all (nuclear fission) in nuclear reactors,

and utilized in the conduct of ships and submarines and generate

(electricity), and highlighted the negative aspects (radioactive

waste) resulting, and the problem of disposal, and controls high

safety necessary to prevent the explosion of the reactor, or radiation

leakage from him.

A rating of energy and resources is based on the possibility of

renewal of that energy and sustainability

1. conventional energy or depleting: include coal, petroleum, metals,

natural gas and chemicals, which are depleted because they can not

be made second or compensated again in a short time Conclusion

The energy is very important, but at this time different from what it

was in past centuries. The few prices, the availability of large

quantities of fuel in the market led to wasteful energy consumption,

and lack of rationalization and savings.

 

We have to search for new sources of non-depletable and harmless

to the environment Summary The energy is defined as the ability to

work and finish the job or fill what, as it is in many things such as

the speed of the car or carrying a rock, this requires any work, and

the energy and the workpiece is calculated in the same unit

measurement, and that a lot of people do not distinguish between

power and energy capacity, where the capacity is the rate do the job,

as the force is a process in which the payment or attraction to things

and carried out by the man to his body going on, and the job of any

energy depend on the severity force in addition to the nature of the

road and the distance traveled, which is driven by the body, and the

energy that has been integrated to move any motion so-called

mechanical energy

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