The power in The Arabic Counters

Arab States
at the Arab level, the Arab States nearly 20 million barrels of oil per day, if add Iran production to the production of Arab States become involved about 31 percent of the daily production. On the other hand, total installed capacity by the end of the year 2006 about 137 J. W., while the maximum load of 113 thousand megawatts [ ], which demonstrates the increasing rates of consumption resulting from the expansion in the fields of infrastructure, industrial and other as well as the rationalization of consumption. This and the electric power generation in the Arab world about 623 thousand J. W. A.S. Byatt For the year 2006, an increase of 5.4 percent from 2005, and shows the form of (2) the various reviews of the sources of power in the Arab world.

Also, the Arab States and the availability of high rates of solar radiation macroeconomic ranging between 4.8 kwh/m2/day, ranging from the intensity of solar radiation direct between 1700 – 2800 kwh/m2/year, with the cover the withdrawal of low range between 10% to 20% only throughout the year and is a excellent rates and usable effectively with solar technologies currently available. It is applied in practice, spread – in some Arab States. The factories for the production systems of solar water heating which meet the proportion of similar imported demand on these systems in local markets, as is the case in the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt.

In Egypt currently being prepared to start entry in generating electricity using solar systems thermal into the application by subtracting a tender to install a solar thermal capacity of 140 mega watts where solar component 20 mega watts.

In view of the map of the wind in the Arab homeland Find Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia in the introduction to the Arab States and the capabilities of the installed 230M. W., 124M. W., 20 M. W., respectively, and the contribution of wind power about 0.17% of the building of the vehicle to the Arab States, while total capacity of water stations in the Arab world about 9576 megawatts represent 7.4% of the total capacity of the electric power generation, Egypt tops Iraq, Morocco, Arab states in water capacity of the vehicle.

The challenges of energy and
energy will remain one of the main activity of humanitarian concern over the ages, preoccupation with its fishery resources and to ensure the provision of supplies also socially methods for drawing on the resources of the do not disturb the ecological system is not linked to a country without the other, but are Masjed Jamei grows in the absence of the time and cheap energy. From here comes the challenges facing the world community as a whole represented in climate change issues, and the growing dependence on fossil fuel, providing easy access to energy, all this requires alliances and policies of the long-term, has already begun entities of many international took its way toward the serious work, entities found that work individually will not lead to security of energy resources, and to the completion of the research plans to which it aspires, here was necessary to the coherence of efforts and work according to a single curriculum and the adoption of the budgets to ensure general lack of Mali

Energy will remain one of the main activity of humanitarian concern over the ages, preoccupation with its fishery resources and to ensure the provision of supplies also socially methods for drawing on the resources of the do not disturb the ecological system is not linked to a country without the other, but are Masjed Jamei grows in the absence of the time and cheap energy. From here comes the challenges facing the world community as a whole represented in climate change issues, and the growing dependence on fossil fuel, providing easy access to energy, all this requires alliances and policies of the long-term, has already begun entities of many international took its way toward the serious work, entities found that work individually will not lead to security of energy resources, and to the completion of the research plans to which it aspires, here was necessary to the coherence of efforts and work according to a single curriculum and the adoption of the budgets to ensure general lack of Mali is sufficient to meet the requirements of the research conducted on a high level of accuracy and quality, and attracting expertise creative ideas to these research programs, while the image on the other side of the capacities and capabilities, consider each toward the goal of different or agreed With others, do not yield to the wishes and aspirations of the had nothing to do with reality!!!!!!!.

The following elements: Challenges.

أ‌) to ensure the supply of
causing procedures for the security of energy supplies (gas and oil) concern very obsessions of consuming States, ensuring the security of supplies has several significant meanings, in the present means reassurance to what extent the level of civilization, adopted on the prices modeled on more energy guarantees the provision of communications and in the flow of funds as a result of industrial processes of the various trade and dependent on energy, the future lead to secure supplies to stabilize prices, and the preparation of future plans on clear bases and the aspiration to further progress and prosperity and well-being.

The term “Securing Energy” expressing the availability of reliable energy source in sufficient quantities and relative stability acceptable prices for States importing and consuming this horrid sources. Before the events of 11 September 2001 was not this term dimensions that referred to in now, test site such as:
– nuclear energy stations
– thermal power plants (use the oil and natural gas and coal for electricity production)
– Wells of oil and natural gas production
– score refueling
– oil pipeline
– pipelines to transport natural gas
– water dams (for the production of electricity from water sources)
– water networks

that can represent the targets of the attack, other than the use of the world about 50,000 transport ship giant shipment is used to about 4000 ship to transport oil product from the giant fields (116 wells), which produces each with about 100,000 barrels a day of oil, while the rest of the world needs of about 4000 oil wells is small, with an average of 17,000 barrels per day.

On June 15, 2004 the deployment of Sheikh Abdullah Bin Nasser Al-Rashed a book entitled “ideological foundations to target oil”, which identified six effects of such targeting are:
— The rising oil prices.
– Lifting the cost required to secure energy sources.
– To work on a wide variety of energy sources to cope with the increase in oil prices.
– an increase in the cost of research in the areas of alternative energy.
– Instability as an outcome of the exchange markets, both local and foreign.
– the disastrous effects of the revenues of the economy in the United States of America.

It is worth mentioning that the terrorist organizations and armed gangs pose a threat to the sources of energy, in Nigeria, which is one of the largest suppliers of oil in the world where there are – in Nigeria’s Delta. About 120 the formation of armed fighting for an increase in the share of areas of oil revenues, and include the same vision also Al-qaeda come these sites within the priorities of its agenda.

In Pessimistically Alex Schmidt (March 2007), based on the method of Al Qaeda Organization of the implementation of the many simultaneous attacks with each other – which made these attacks is a distinctive feature of al Qaeda and the imagined Schmidt future scenario such simultaneous attacks can be described as the sensation if Al Qaeda carried out days what attacking:
— a gathering address Abqiq oil/Saudi Arabia which dealt with about 6.8 million barrels of oil per day, in addition to pumped about 10.5 – 11 million barrels of oil per day of vessels that were distributed to the world.
– the Strait of Malaga, which links the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, where some 20 percent of world trade, carrying about 130 daily ship.

– a pipeline stretch of 4000 kilometers from southern Russia Mara in Ukraine to Germany and Western Europe.
– the Strait of Hormuz, which controls the transfer of about 15 – 17 million barrels of oil a day, about 20% of the daily consumption of the world.
– Suez Canal ship or more, which could cause a big loss to Egypt which depends mainly on the Suez Canal as one of the sources of income.

However, the term supply does not include this respects only but extends to other factors such as, the instability of the Iraqi production of oil – 2.5 million barrels a day – political disagreements between America and Venezuela, and the instability of the situation in the Gulf and the Arab world, such as the threats facing Iran because of its attempt to possess nuclear energy technology, or some natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina that hit America in August 2005 or Juwono-hurricane Mitch, which hit the coast of Oman and Iran and some of the villages of Bahrain in June 2007 and caused the death of about 70 people, jumping the barrel price to $70 a barrel and played a magnitude in moving the prices of oil and culminating in the relationship between the price of crude oil and the strength of the hurricane.

We need to find quick solutions to reap its results in the short termShort-Term examples of work on diversification of energy sources with the objective of reducing dependence on oil and natural gas, within the framework of an integrated action plan include States importing and consuming these sources, and to engage in partnerships to develop methods of access to energy sources of clean, with the transfer of such technology to all partners alike, we are in need of partnership based on cooperation and partnership rather than on the basis of a strong and weak

b) Sustainability
define sustainable development as “an action in keeping the exploitation of resources and the directions of the investment and change institutions, strengthen the potential of the present and the future to meet the needs and aspirations of human rights”, which means that it requires the rule of consumption values that do not exceed the environmentally possible. It is worth mentioning that the European Union (EU) and depend on fossil fuels by not less than 80% each of the total energy sources

 

Define sustainable development as “an action in keeping the exploitation of resources and the directions of the investment and change institutions, strengthen the potential of the present and the future to meet the needs and aspirations of human rights”, which means that it requires the rule of consumption values that do not exceed the environmentally possible. It is worth mentioning that the European Union (EU) and depend on fossil fuels by not less than 80% each of the total primary energy sources – which constitutes a burden on energy planners. leading to the lifting of the proportions of carbon dioxide emissions from each, 11.3 and 16 million tons, the second carbon dioxide daily on the arrangement, therefore, energy policies currently in place in both entities described Baja are not permanent.

A link with air pollution sources of fossil energy as well as production and manufacturing, the mains cord from many countries and the pace of successful in the areas of codification and rationalization of the production and consumption of energy by the introduction of methods and technologies for the clean production and the use of economic instruments incentive to rationalize consumption and reduce pollution. It has taken many States a number of actions to reduce or reducing emissions from the use of fossil resources including economic (Intervention in prices), and rationalization (Rationalization of use), technological (clean technology), legal (use the standards of environmental laws). Among the measures taken in some Arab States, rationalization of energy demand, with the aim of reducing the per capita consumption. It has helped the rationalization of energy demand to make sure that the availability of resources does not mean the licenses and misuse, but priced rationally commensurate with the use.

Since the alternative energies will not provide the required by the world of oil currently used, where it is difficult to compensation consumed amounts of oil at present, at least in the near future, it is likely that the majority of the countries where the use of nuclear energy.

The situation of the Arab States of oil are from economically benefited (OPEC) but that most of them have not benefited catering to the levels of the industrialized countries, the Arab States Petroleum Exporting use only a small part of production (1%), the rest of the Arab States non-oil-producing criminality and oil consumption is not only a small part of the consumption of the industrialized countries, this is reflected on the increase of meager resources of which does not exceed a total of 5% of the emissions of climate change.

To achieve sustainability requires us to support the development of renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind and nuclear ethanol as well as new technologies such as cleaner production cells and hydrogen fuel. Note that this support would increase when receiving these technologies more popular in the world market, which requires floated on the market at maximum speed.

 

c‌) Competitiveness
represents the instability of the prices of energy sources, particularly oil and gas to the focus of the sources of these resources in the hands of some of the other States concerned to industrialized States, so appear such things as public policy and the law from which to control the prices of energy resources and to reduce the impact of market volatility on this strategic goods as much as possible urgent and necessary-but of such measures had not yet entered into force.

In countries dependent on the import of influential ratios of its needs of energy resources to translate such things as political instability in the gas exporting countries or oil, or in countries in the transport networks, to lack of supplies to access to areas of consumption and thus higher prices, fears reckoned and importing States, for example to incur the United States about 7.3 billion dollars if the rise of oil barrel price $1 only for the year.

That high oil prices could negatively affect the economies of small states or developing States. While the creativity and access to new sources of energy, could help them overcome the technologies based on fossil fuel most negative impact on the environment and public health. However, these States alone cannot meet the challenges of the future of energy which is mysterious. Which means the need for the presence of a crowd of the countries working on the allocation of financial resources and intellectual development of new technologies if creativity to submit new solutions to energy on a global level.

On the other hand, the increase in oil prices positive in giving the opportunity to the alternatives of other energy to enter the competition with oil, if we look at the proposed alternatives globally find wind power leads types of renewable energies in terms of the low unit cost of energy production in terms of access to the turbines without political hindrances to those existing in the nuclear energy for example. The increase in oil prices

 

On the other hand, the increase in oil prices positive in giving the opportunity to the alternatives of other energy to enter the competition with oil, if we look at the proposed alternatives globally find wind power leads types of renewable energies in terms of the low unit cost of energy production in terms of access to the turbines without political hindrances to those existing in the nuclear energy for example. The increase in oil prices had led to pay research alternative energy to the priorities of many States, has been occupied by both Germany and China developed centers in energy investments of about 7 billion dollars in 2005, more than 2 billion dollars of investments in 2004, these investments in wind power, solar energy and small hydropower, either in America, the energy investments and 3.5 billion dollars in 2005, while the monitoring of the European Union (EU) toward 2.35billion euros energy research institute of the 50 billion euros allocated to all aspects of human science and applied research through the Research Program Framework Program 7, FP7, which began in January 2007 and will continue for a period of seven years.

The development in the areas of renewable energy in Europe due to the efforts of the European Union which declared commitment and support to access the participation of wind power in 2010 by about 12% of the total installed capacity for generating electric power.

Which indicates that Governments have an essential role to play in defining the general frameworks for scientific research and monitoring of budgets to finance research that serve the government’s orientations whether at present or in the future, then comes the role of the private sector to complement these efforts, we know that it is unlikely that the successful conclusion of these efforts will be successful without the effective participation by Governments, must all Governments to lead the world to a rapid transformation and daring to alternative energy.

The Chinese government has declared the encouraging production of biofuels, in order to reduce its dependence on imported oil, which derives 43 per cent from abroad, after it was issued in the past. And in environmental terms, is considered vital fuel better alternative oil, which led to the Chinese officials on the development of energy sources “Green Zone,” in a prominent place on the list of priorities of the development plan. And looks forward development planners in China, to represent the sources of energy and “green” by the year 2020 about 15% of all kinds of fuel used in the transport sector.

 

 

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The position of the global energy

Growing World consumption of energy resources for the day after day, at the level of primary energy consumption beyond the barrier of 200 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, pumps food and energy in human and animal life are granted communications networks and communications and other. The bulk of these sources of fossil fuel, while contributing to solar energy, wind, heat, and underground shyly by 0.5%. According to a report by Sir Nicholas Stern – former World Bank Chief Economist. the energy sector globally contribute about 24% of the greenhouse gas greenhouse according to the data registered for 2000, which puts the energy on top of the sources of greenhouse gases stigmatizing the electric power generation of fossil reputation for good-globally even in countries that contribute to the clean energy sources by rates is ok.

The Greenhouse greenhouse, contribute to America alone about 25% of the total of these gases, it should be noted that the increase in petroleum exploration during the 1950s of the last century oil issued a list of energy sources of America, to the global energy crisis in 1973, retreating oil consumption in an attempt to compensate for the lack of supplies more than America from its dependence on coal and natural gas, and demands that the administration of President Bush energy planners to increase reliance on nuclear energy to meet the increasing demand on energy, which translated in the budget for the fiscal year of 2007 about 633 million dollars, up 18 percent on the previous year.

 

For Wind Power, has spread used in many countries of the world and the largest of these rates in European countries, Denmark gets about 15 percent of its electricity from wind turbines, in parts of Germany be generating about 75% of the electrical energy from the wind. The total capacity in the world of wind turbines about 59206 megawatts, an increase of 20% from the year 2005. The global increase in the growth of the combinations of wind turbines to the saturation of production factories to signed contracts to supply the turbines after two years at least, while it did not take in the past only a few months. This in spite of the rise in the prices of the turbines at about 35% as a result of the global increase in the prices of raw materials as well as the increase in the demand for wind turbines.

Different future estimates of amounts expected oil output, but he can say ranging between 1000 – 2200 billion barrels, with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates on the 51.2% of this reserve, whereas the share of each of North America, Europe and the rest of Asia countries gathered about 10%.

Energy locally and regionally

 

1-Egypt
locally – in Egypt covering the electrical network of about 99.3% of the population with a total installed capacity of 23 gigawatts last year for the fiscal year 2006/2007, the plan of the Ministry of Electricity and Energy rate of increase in average annual rate of 7.5%, which means the installation of nearly 1,500 MW annually. If we look to the elements of the package of electricity generation we would find it represents 86% of thermal power stations, and 12.6%of water stations, 1.4 % of wind farms.

The fact that the natural gas is the basic fuel – besides the diesel fuel. In the operation of thermal power stations which constitute the mainstay of the sources of the electric power generation in Egypt, knowledge of the future estimates is crucial in the balance of energy which studies indicate the availability of about 67 trillion cubic feet of natural gas to be sufficient for approximately 35, any that Egypt will turn after this period to the state of imported fuel thermal stations, which means an invoice electricity cost prohibitive.

Egypt has vast resources of the sources of the wind and the sun, which can support the government’s orientations toward greater reliance on renewable energy technologies in the provision of energy in the future. In this framework, occupies the renewable energy and a distinguished position in the plans of energy production, in this context, it had established the New and Renewable Energy Authority in 1986 to serve as a focal point in the provision and promotion of renewable energy technologies.

According to the initial measurements conducted some sites on the Red Sea from Egypt enjoyed wind power capacity is enormous, the measurements of the detailed survey of the Gulf of Suez Canal lasted from 1991 until 1995, in order to pass the construction in 1996 wind atlas of the Gulf of Suez, including data on speeds wind directions during that period, the number four sites is Abu stairs, Al-zafrana, Oil Bay and Hurghada, all located on the Red Sea coast. In view of the Excellent these areas at speeds high winds have encouraged many international bodies to cooperate with Egypt in the preparation of studies and the establishment of wind farms to generate electricity with linked on the network. In March 2003 Issued Atlas detailed winds of the Gulf of Suez, in cooperation with the Danish Rizzo, whereas wind atlas of the Arab Republic of Egypt in February 2006.

 

And energy projects of the wind, which established in Egypt, wind farm pilot phase which established at the end of the 1990s the ability of 5.4 megawatts in Hurghada, which aimed to gain experience in the theory and practice of diverse wind power, followed the establishment of wind farms business and represented in the establishment of a farmer capacity of 305 MW was funded in cooperation between the new and renewable energy authority as a representative of the Egyptian government and Danish Governments, German, Spanish, have been put forward global bidding to sell certificates of erus to be obtained from these projects.

It was the beginning of the implementation of the two farms with a total capacity of 240 megawatts financed as follows: a wind farm 120 megawatts in cooperation with the Japanese government and 120 megawatts in cooperation with the Danish government. It is expected access with a total installed capacity of wind power to 7,210 megawatts by 2020, accounting for its participation with the rest of the renewable sources of 20% of the total electric power generation, of which 12% of wind power and the rest of the hydro energy.

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