Oil refining operations of petroleum

Petroleum refining processes that are intended to address oil,

extract carbon material required, and converted into a form of

consumption, cracking molecules and reshape new chemical



Oil refining operations major physical separation processes, which

are separated by the particles using the distillation towers, where

they are separated by material at a temperature of boiling and

intensify heat, or using refrigerants that separates heavy material

components of oil cooling, or using chemical solvents. Chemical

conversion processes


Conversion processes Chemical is the process of improving the

quality of the recovered material, as in the physical separation

processes, and by making the chemical processes under the

influence of heat, pressure and catalysts, and by using the method of

coking, where he learned from heat and high pressure in the

cracking of heavy particles of material petroleum extracted in the

distillation process, to produce the best and the purest quality, also

taken advantage of the coking process to produce coke from the

remaining material from the thermal cracking process, it is used as

catalysts, in order to break high temperature, without the need to

generate high pressure

And  filtration operations, a process purification of petroleum

products from unwanted impurities, such as materials, sulfur, etc.,

and that lead to damage to the devices that work on burning, these

processes are more than stage including: filtering sulfide hydrogen

by removing hydrogen sulfide, a foul substance odor and unwanted,

which can either be raw to the same rule, or that result from the

various chemical processes in the refining and the above-

mentioned. Read mercaptans compounds which remove these

compounds with the stench, and unwanted, using solvents, caustic

soda, whether light vehicles boiling points lower than 100 C, But if

heavy vehicles, are disposed of using desalination processes convert

it to a second sulfide non-harmful . Purification Baloadrugen

transferring material harmful sulfur and erosion that occurs in

metals to hydrogen sulfide compounds

The desirable additions which is adding some improved materials

for petroleum derivatives, such as increasing the viscosity of the

motor oil, and increase the intensity of the lubricant, and resistance

to heat

Steps oil refining

Oil passes through many stages to produce derivatives of useful and

valid oil for use and these steps are: Primary treatment:

This stage is

the stage of the oil preparation before entering refineries, which are

water and salt removal; because the presence of water in your tower

refine oil and distilled may lead to an explosion of the tower because

of the enormous pressure that produces water vapor, salts are

working on the corrosion of iron, which makes up a distillation

tower, and this process is performed using certain materials or

using electricity, and include primary treatment to get rid of other

impurities suspended in the oil. Distillation process: In this process

is used to varying temperatures in the big towers for the production

of various petroleum derivatives and produces this many of them oil

derivatives: Gases process: An example of the gas used in the

process of welding. Gasoline: which includes gasoline and diesel

fuel, one of the most important petroleum products due to the wide

use all over the world it is used as fuel for cars and operating

mechanisms in the factories. Pitch: is the substance that remains in

the bottom of the tower, used in buildings and in the paving of

roads. Kerosene: This substance is used to operate the aircraft. After

obtaining these derivatives it is essential to improve again they are

at this stage still unusable if taken diesel fuel from the tower as it

has been used, it causes problems for the mechanisms that will be

operated using it, as it will increase pollution in the environment for

this intervention this derivatives in a process called thermal

cracking put a petroleum derivatives under very high temperature

which is to produce a material suitable for use in the final image it is

possible at this stage the use of chemicals that were not present in

the oil to improve product quality. Last stage is the stage of

processing, which is to get rid of the remnants of sulfur in petroleum

products before putting these derivatives in the market.

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