Marine oil pollution and how to overcome them

Oil tankers nails in the coffin of the environment
Temted environment they watched the sinking of the oil tanker

accidents in aquatic her womb like bayonets poisoned implanted in

her body or Kmsamar ringing in her coffin! Vouhdha cause leakage

of up to two million tonnes per annum of crude oil to the sea and

ocean waters, comes what happened to leak massive amounts of oil

in the vicinity of the northwest coast of Spain in November 19, 2002

alarming as a series of workshops on oil spills from tankers cracked

and sunken.

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Broke in the Greek oil tanker “Prestige” into two halves because of a

severe storm sank on its impact in the Atlantic Ocean carrying 77

tons of diesel oil to the bottom of the ocean, threatening badly

damaged wildlife and marine fisheries after the oil spill, which bear

the tanker to the Spanish coast. It has flowed , according to news

agencies, thousands of tons of oil from the tanker after it sank,

contaminating more than 100 beach and the deaths of some 250

birds of 18 species, and the injury of marine life in Spain a big risk,

as well as to prevent fishing in the area of more than 400 kilometers

of coastline.
And threatens to spread leaking diesel oil -albalg so far more than

20 spot with a brown color and round shape and large density has

a diameter of each of them between meters and four meters – the

extinction of fish stocks and shellfish is important to the local

economy in a vast area off the coast of Spain as it supports about

60% of the population on fishing as their main source of livelihood.

Winds and bad weather has led to the failure of efforts to prevent

the oil spill progress towards beaches and inland province of

Galician Spanish authorities, and despite the huge efforts to clean

up the roads and installations covered by a thick layer of oil

expectsresponsible entities to take clean-up operations about three

years, and that the region It will not return to what it was before in the previous ten years at least!
Tanker contaminated ..:
Oil tankers Bhawwadtha repeated and erroneous practices, Kalqa

waste oil and waste in the water of dangerous contaminants of water

and longer and the environment in general. Researcher finds Dr.

“restricted life” in his study on oil pollution of water under the

supervision of “Environment Public Authority” in Libya, it is

difficult to control in the marine oil pollution or prevent its spread

as it is floating and moving the risk of the wind direction and the

factors tides and the intensity of the waves controls and so difficult

to control on him. Dr Mahjoub constitutes the most dangerous

pollutants of petroleum contaminants coasts and seas and oceans

and most widespread since the 20% of the oil produced globally is

extracted from the deep sea, so, any of the following reasons leading

to the oil-water pollution:
• maritime accidents and the most important of which hit oil tankers

coral reefs or to each other or sinking.
• accidents that occur during the drilling and exploration operations

in the seas and oceans.
• leaking oil into the sea during loading and unloading operations of

oil ports.
• ignitions and fires oil tankers at sea.
• crude oil leak due to corrosion in the incidents of the metal body of the tanker.
• throwing water reservoirs after washing tanker discharged into the sea.
• To meet what is known as water contaminated budget oil in sea

water, where they are filling the tanker after unloading its cargo of

oil by at least 60% of its size to maintain balance or equilibrium

carrier while walking on the sea during the return trip to the port of

export.
• Oil leak from oil tankers due to accidents from offshore oil wells

adjacent to the beaches.
• leaking oil into the sea during the war, as happened in the second

Gulf War.
Leaks .. floating cancer:
Oil spills threaten marine organisms in general in the affected areas

such as fish, turtles, birds, corals and other districts of the seas and

oceans. Where it is due to the escalation and the transcendence of a

lot of different vapors from the oil slick floating on the surface of the

water, the air currents push these fumes away from the place where

oil pollution to the residential areas on beaches and coastal areas by

the air becomes saturated with a large degree, and in high

concentrations above acceptable which affects the marine and land

ecosystems. The oil oil contains many of the organic materials that

are deemed many of them poisoned organisms, and the most

dangerous of those compounds benzopyrene compound

(benzopyrene), a cancer-causing hydrocarbons and lead to the death

of aquatic organisms.
On the other hand, because the oil density less than the density of

water it floats on the surface of the water component of the thin

insulating layer between the water and air conditioning, and this

layer spread over a large area of the surface of the water, which

prevents gaseous exchange between the air and the water there is no

soluble oxygen in sea water occurs which affects the gaseous

balance, as the oil layer prevents the arrival of light into aquaculture

hindering photosynthesis, which is the main source of oxygen and

self-purification of water, leading to the death of many marine

organisms and the disruption in the food chain of organisms. Add to

this that the spilled oil causes pollution of coastal beaches as a result

of moving long distances with ocean currents and tides, and gather

some of its parts in the form of a small black balls hinder the

movement of boats and fishing operations harmlessly in and spoil

the beauty of sandy beaches and damage seashells and coral reefs

affecting tourism those areas. The most stable oil vehicle moves

through the food chain and is stored in liver and fat of marine

animals, and these have far-reaching adverse effects do not appear

on the human body only after several years.
Bye .. fish and mammals:
Studies show that the Persian Gulf is the most oil-polluted seas of

the world, and that the organisms in the Arabian Peninsula region is

threatened, there are approximately four species of mammals and

21 species of birds and 40 species of reptiles and three species of

fish are threatened with extinction perfectly! Arabian Gulf has seen

a number of cases of the oil spill is the largest and worst in the world

over the past years, and is leaking oil from tankers 28% of the total

oil spilled into the Persian Gulf waters, which amounts to an average

of about 140 thousand barrels per year.
As for the Mediterranean, which is overlooked by many Arab

countries, it amounts to a leak of oil annually to approximately 600

thousand million tons. Based on a recent report issued by the

United Nations Environment Programme, only 4% of the areas

where oysters grow (aquatic animals psoriasis) in the

Mediterranean produce at present unfit for human Seafood!
It was the third World Report Environment Program of the United

Nations had said earlier that the planet was at a crossroads, one

quarter of mammals in the world and 12% of birds already facing

the threat of extinction, and the world’s seas are already exposed to

a real threat due to pollution, and a third of the global stock of fish is

classified now as Nailla or at risk!
Anti-oil ..:
The major mechanical methods to combat water pollution with oil,

it can be summarized as follows:
1. Use floating barriers for fencing off the oil slick to prevent the

spread of oil.
2.astamal sorbent that hinder the oil slick movement partly like

glass wool and mica, and sprinkle these materials from small boats

and then collected by fine-mesh nets and transported to where it

can be disposed of either by burning in special furnaces, or is

extracted oil is located where and reused again .
3.astamal method of sucking by special devices sucking oil slicks,

such as vacuum cleaners, and so are able to separate the oil from the

water.
4.astamal devices are scraping the thick layer of oil floating on the

surface of the water, and the oil is assembling Almst and dragging

using the pumps.
5.asthaddam conveyor belt devices that pass through a metal layer

where the viscous oil sticks oil belt and can get rid of it later.
Can be anti-oil-water pollution by a biological solution using

bacteria, as some scientists have found that a number of

microscopic microorganisms that can analyze petroleum substances

that can convert oil slicks into very fine droplets in the water.

Some oil companies have used chemical and specialized laboratories in

some Western countries these microbiology widely in treating oil

spills in seas and oceans by the oil spill from the tanker.
There are chemical methods to treat the oil spill into the water

where it is sprayed certain types of solvents and detergents or

powders of high density on the surface of oil slicks in polluted seas

for sticking out and then converted subdivided into something like

emulsion Venture in water and dissolves in or deposited on the

bottom. But this solution is treated superficially the problem,

because the arrival of those materials to the sea floor cause the

extermination of fish, snails, worms sand where you live, and so this

method is an increase in the complexity of the pollution problem,

not a final solution

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